Ask any newcomer to the Allagash Wilderness Waterway or Boundary Waters Canoe Area what he or she fears most about camping out, and you'll hear "bears!" Some folks are afraid they'll be eaten alive; others are worried that a bear will get their food. And backcountry managers offer small consolation, for their advice is often predicated on conditions which no longer exist.
For example, here are some suggestions from U.S. Forest Service publications which are distributed to canoeists who enter Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area. All except one will get you into trouble. Can you tell which one?
Hang your food pack from a tree limb that is at least 10 feet off the ground, or suspend it from a horizontal pole set between two trees. Some campsites have a "bear pole" which everyone uses. Please leave the pole as you found it as a courtesy to the next person who occupies your site.
Don't leave food in your tent, ever!
Leave tent flaps open so that a bear can walk in and check the place without resorting to brute force.
This recommendation comes from the canoeing literature: Place food under an overturned canoe. Pile some pots on top to function as a night alarm system.
If you said #2, you are correct. All the rest are wrong, dead wrong! Here's why:
Consider #1: Bears are creatures of habit whose behavior is programmed by past experience. They quickly learn where and in what campers put food.
For example, I once saw a black bear tear apart a number four Duluth Pack that was filled with sleeping bags and tents. This pack had never been used for food, so there was no odor. Past experience robbing other camps had taught this bear that food comes in packs and pack-like objects. It was the shape of the container that attracted the bear, not the smell! Same with tin cans, which they learn about at the local dump. How else can you explain why bears will bite through sealed tin cans which have no food smell on them?
Bears also learn that food packs grow on trees! Certain trees. On popular campsites there is usually only one tree with limbs that are high enough to discourage a determined bear. Invariably, every camper suspends his food pack from this tree. "Soon as it gets dark, I'll climb up there and get it," thinks the bear. Consider this scene which I witnessed some years ago:
A big sow bear and two youngsters waddle into camp and make a beeline right for the "bear tree". The food pack is hanging from a limb, maybe 12 feet up and three feet out. Mama sidles up to the tree trunk, stretches out, and begins to climb. She goes up a few feet then slides down. She's ticked. Real ticked! So she woofs and snaps as she circles the tree, her eyes fixed on the dangling morsel.
Meantime, one of the cubs gets wind of the food and starts to climb. Six feet up, it stops and begins to bawl. Seconds later, mama shimmies to the rescue and nudges junior's behind. The kid scoots the remaining distance, stretches out on the limb and hooks a pack strap. Seconds later, cub and food pack fall to the ground and everyone enjoys a tasty meal, courtesy of some camper who "followed the rules."
Moral? Tree your food if you like, just don't use the same tree--or bear pole--as everyone else!
Next, let's check out #3, leave your tent flaps open so a bear can walk in. This one dates back to the 50s when campers cooked fresh foods on open fires within a few yards of their canvas tents. Cotton holds odors tenaciously and a curious bear might just check them out. So it probably was wise to leave the door flaps open so a bear could look around without tearing the place apart.
But nylon tents and fire don't mix, so now we pitch our shelters--and do all our cooking--well out of range of windblown sparks (and food odor). Modern campers know better than to cook or eat around their tents, and bears know better than to waste their time looking for food in places that in the past have proven unproductive.
Closed tent flaps will not discourage a black bear, but they will keep out insects, snakes and the weather. Frankly, I can't think of a more stupid recommendation than this. The feds should've trashed this one long ago.
Now, let's address #4: Place food packs under an overturned canoe and set pots on top as a night alarm system. This idea dates back to the days when campsites were not so heavily used, and before camp bears became "conditioned" to the ways of man.
Todays camp bears are well educated. They're not afraid of man, woman or whistle. And where food is involved, they are very determined. Clanging pots just add to the fun. A man told me a big black bear once tried to get at some food stored under his aluminum canoe. When the bruin couldn't connect, he began to jump on the craft. Damage included a broken seat and several pulled rivets. Just think what he could've done to a Kevlar canoe!
Now that we've shown that traditional rules don't work, here are some non-traditional ones that do:
Break the classical conditioning habit: don't put your food in the same place as everyone else!
I simply take food packs out of the immediate camp area and place them in the woods or along the shoreline, taking care to keep them well away from game trails. Then I separate packs by 50 feet or more for additional security. Bears don't see very well, especially at night, so as long as there's no food odor, they'll leave things alone.
Case in point: Some years ago, my teenage crew had a prune fight with the lunch leftovers. When the fun ended, the area was littered with wrinkled fruit.
About midnight, a sow and cub ambled into camp and began eating the goodies. They came with ten feet of two food packs which were set on the ground just outside the camp perimeter. It was too dark to see the packs so the bears left them alone. Again, let me emphasize that a bear won't get your food if he can't see it or smell it!
All of which brings us to the matter of a clean camp. Leftovers should be burned or buried well away from camp and water. Every spaghetti noodle and grain of popcorn must be gathered and disposed of. The feds are right about number two: bears will tear down your tent to get at food!
Let's review the rules for bearproofing your camp.
Seal all foodstuffs in plastic so there is no odor.
Break the classical conditioning habit by putting your food where other people don't.
Don't keep food in your tent. In grizzly country, the cooking area should be at least 100 yards from where you sleep.
Keep a scrupulously clean camp and you'll find that what works for bears also works for ground squirrels, mice and birds. Like bears, these animals quickly learn where and in what campers put their food. Ever notice how small animals will hover around a picnic table when people are present? Moving the table won't help, but eating on the ground out of the camp area might.
WHAT TO DO IF A BEAR COMES INTO CAMP
Black Bear Encounters
Stay calm. It's your food he wants, not you. Over the years I've confronted a number of black bears and my nonchalant procedure goes something like this:
First I yell or blow a whistle. A wild bear will usually hightail it at the sound, but an experienced camp bear won't even look up. Secure in the knowledge that my food has no odor and is out of sight beyond the camp boundary, I maintain a safe distance and watch the show. After the bear checks all the usual places and finds nothing, he will move on in search of more productive fare.
Again, let me emphasize that you will not scare off a determined camp bear with screams, whistles or cherry bombs. He will leave only when he's sure there is no food around!
On the other hand, don't be too laid back. There are crazy bears like there are crazy people. You could run into one with a bad tooth, an injury, or a nasty disposition. Unprovoked bear attacks are rare, but they do happen. So stay cool, keep your distance, and identify a getaway route in the unlikely event things get out of hand.
During the summer of '87, two men were mauled by a small black bear in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. She followed one man into the lake and kept chomping away. Fortunately, both men survived the mauling. When Forest Service personnel later killed the bear, they discovered she was starving.
If you are confronted by a black bear, stretch out your arms, put a pack on your head etc. (so you'll appear as big as possible) and firmly call, WHOA BEAR, STOP MONSTER, or something else that suggests you're in command. Do not run! Black bears are mostly bluff. A "charging" bruin will almost always stop within a few feet of you then turn tail and run.
An air of confidence is everything. For example, Lynn Rogers (reknown bear biologist) routinely scares the sows away so he can go into the dens and tag the cubs. Mama flees to the woods where she quietly watches the show. When Lynn is finished, the bear resumes her motherly duties.
If you are attacked by a black bear, don't play dead! Research suggests that if you fight, you'll probably live to tell about the encounter.
In 1984, I was "charged" by three grizzlies on the Arctic tundra. As they galloped towards me, I dropped to the ground and played dead, certain that the ploy would become fact in a matter of seconds. The bears came within two canoe lengths then wheeled off into the highlands. I later learned from a wildlife biologist that my behavior was textbook perfect.
Note that you respond to a grizzly attack by playing dead. If attacked by a black bear, fight like hell!
In summary, to keep your food safe from bears, just follow these rules:
Keep a clean camp and don't store food in your tent.
Store odor-free food packs where other people don't. If you tree packs, don't use the same tree as everyone else.
Some of you may wonder why, if it's this simple, other camping writers and the federal authorities don't support my methods.
Frankly, I'm not sure. I do know that most outdoor writers and federal authorities spend less time in the woods than they'd like to admit. Often, the advice they give is parroted from ancient pamphlets and out-of-date camping books.
As mentioned, I never hang my packs in bear country. But I keep a scrupulously clean camp and at night, put my food in an unsuspecting place. I've lived by these simple rules for 35 years, and in that time, neither I, nor anyone in my charge, has ever lost food or equipment to any animal. And that friends is the "bear" truth!
HOW TO BEARPROOF YOUR CAMP